Authored by Carissa Chew
Illustrated by Annie Adam





       



Authored by Carissa Chew
Illustrated by Annie Adam




THE BRITISH SLAVE TRADE


Remembering Britain’s leading
role in the Atlantic slave trade


Written by Carissa Chew. Published Sunday 27 September 2020.





Between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, 10 to 12 million Africans were forcibly taken to the Americas and Caribbean aboard European ships where they were sold to European and American slave-owners as ‘chattel’, meaning that they essentially held the same status as livestock. We have a good idea of the number of human beings that were trafficked from West Africa to the Americas because they were listed in the inventories of traders and plantation owners as ‘property’ and assigned a monetary value.

Up to 50% of enslaved Africans died aboard European slave ships during this journey across the Atlantic, which was known as the ‘Middle Passage’. The high death rate was not only the result of appalling conditions which led to starvation and the spread of diseases but also a consequence of the torture and executions that took place aboard the ships and high suicide rates among the enslaved.









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TOP LEFT AND CENTRE: ‘DESCRIPTION OF A SLAVE SHIP. THE ‘BROOKES’ OF LIVERPOOL, 1789’. THE BRITISH MUSEUM. TOP RIGHT: ‘THE SLAVE DECK OF THE WILDFIRE AT KEY WEST, FLORIDA’. HARPER’S WEEKLY, 2 JUNE 1860. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION, WASHINGTON.  BOTTOM LEFT:  ‘ON BOARD A SLAVE SHIP, C.1830’. ORIGINAL SOURCE UNKNOWN. BOTTOM RIGHT: ‘BELOW DECK OF A SLAVE SHIP HEADED TO BRAZIL’. JOHANN MORITZ, 1830. RUGENDAS.


From 1562 to 1660, British involvement in the triangular trade (the exchange of commodities between Europe, Africa, and the Americas) was mostly limited to the export of goods from the West African coast, such as ivory, gold, pepper, dyewood, and indigo.

Although it was the Portuguese who first engaged in the slave trade in the 1400s and the Dutch who initiated sugar plantation slavery in the Caribbean in the 1640s, the British soon followed suit. John Hawkins, who left England for St Domingo in 1562, is remembered as the first English slave trader. Over the course of three voyages, Hawkins captured around 1,200 African men, women, and children and sold them to plantation owners in the Spanish colonies in the Americas.

In these early years, British slave traders supplied slave labour only to other European colonies, instead choosing to import convicts and indentured labourers from Britain and a few African ‘servants’ to work on British overseas plantations. Although these indentured labourers suffered great hardship and are sometimes referred to as ‘white slaves’, they retained certain rights as workers and were not incorporated into the system of chattel slavery in which Black people were denied the status of human beings.

The first record of an enslaved African presence in the British colony of Virginia appears in 1619. As Britain expanded its territories in the Caribbean (gaining control of Barbados in 1625 and Jamaica in 1655) the economic demand for slave labour in the British colonies rapidly grew. The Caribbean (formerly known as the ‘West Indies’) quickly became the centre of the British empire’s economy with sugar, which was by far the most profitable commodity, accounting for 70% of slave activity in the region.

In order to meet the intensive labour demands of sugar-cane farming and compete with the other European powers (such as Portugal, Holland, Sweden, and Denmark), the British imported large numbers of enslaved Africans into the colonies and the introduction of new legislation also gave them an upper hand in the trade. The Molasses Act of 1733 banned the import of foreign sugar to North America and the Direct Export Act of 1793 allowed British planters to ship goods directly to Europe.

In the 1660s, the number of enslaved Africans transported in British ships averaged 6,700 per year. The East India Company was involved in exporting captives from the West coast of Africa to South and East Africa as well as Asia. The Royal African Company (RAC) formed in 1672 formalised the trade under a royal charter and gave a monopoly to the port of London.

Before 1707, Scotland was officially prohibited from participating in the trade, but Scottish merchants, sailors, and surgeons, etc. were still involved in the voyages departing from Bristol and Liverpool and elsewhere. After the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England, the port of Glasgow quickly became its own slave trading centre.

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‘SLAVES CUTTING AND PLANTING SUGAR’. TEN VIEWS  IN THE ISLAND OF ANTIGUA, IN WHICH ARE REPRESENTED THE PROCESS OF SUGAR MAKING, AND THE EMPLOYMENT OF THE NEGROES. LONDON: THOMAS CLAY, 1823. BRITISH LIBRARY.


A s part of the abolitionist campaign, British sailors and surgeons were asked to give evidence about the horrors of the Middle Passage. We learn that slaves were deliberately dehumanised aboard the ships from testimonies, such as that of Thomas Smith, a young Scotsman who joined a voyage that set out from Liverpool on a ship called The Squirrel. The British traders branded the Africans with hot irons, the men were forcibly circumcised and the women were raped or, in Smith’s words, subjected ‘to the wanton and unrestrained licentiousness of the crew’.

The captives were weighed down with heavy shackles and chained together in groups of ten at the neck, arms, and legs and were kept like this for the entire duration of the journey. If one person died, the rest of the group had to watch as their corpse was thrown overboard and devoured by sharks. 45 of the 450 Africans aboard The Squirrel died during this journey. Sharks are reported to have followed the British slave ships, feeding on the regular supply of corpses that were thrown overboard. In the words of Frederick Douglass, ‘you can see a slave ship by its trail of human blood’.

The death of a captive African was viewed as an economic loss and diseases such as dysentery, malaria, measles, smallpox, and yellow fever were rife aboard the ships. Rather than improving sanitation, however, the British focused on reducing their economic losses by putting in place measures to prevent Africans from taking their own lives. Nets were added to the sides of the ships so that captives could not throw themselves overboard to commit suicide by drowning.

When Africans did manage to jump overboad, crewmembers responded by sending out ‘rescue’ boats, bringing the captive back on board where they were made an example of. Because African women were given greater freedom of movement on board ships than African men, female suicide attempts were more frequent. Captives who refused to eat were also flogged and forcibly fed, sometimes using a medieval torture tool known as a ‘Speculum Oris’ to force their mouths open.

The most notorious example of cruelty aboard a British slave ship is The Zong, which also became a prominent reference point within the British abolitionist campaign. In August 1781, The Zong left the Ghanaian coast with 442 enslaved Africans on board. Within two months, however, 62 Africans and 7 crew members had died due to disease and fresh water supplies were running dangerously low. Since enslaved Africans were legally classed as ‘cargo’, the death of African captives aboard the ships could usually be claimed under the ship owner’s insurance as ‘damage’ or ‘loss of property’.

The Zong’s insurance covered death by drowning, but not death by disease. Afraid about the economic loss he would suffer, Captain Luke Collingwood ordered that the remaining 130 Africans be thrown overboard so that he could claim their worth on his insurance. Back in Britain, The Zong’s owners won their lawsuit against their insurance company on the grounds that it was legal to kill sick animals aboard a ship in order to prevent the further spread of disease, and therefore acceptable to do the same with captive Africans.

The ill-treatement continued when the enslaved Africans reached their destination. We learn about the horrors of plantation life in the British Caribbean from The History of Mary Prince. Published in 1831, this abolitionist propagandist text retells the story of an enslaved woman from Bermuda who found freedom in England. Most vividly, Mary Prince described her enslaver’s ill-treatment of his pregnant female slave, Hetty, stating that one day he ‘flew into a terrible passion, and ordered the poor creature to be stripped quite naked, notwithstanding her pregnancy, and to be tied up to a tree in the yard’. This neglectful abuse resulted in the miscarriage of her enslaver’s child followed by Hetty’s own premature death.





LEFT: ‘SCARS OF GEORGE, A MISSISSIPPI SLAVE’. BATON ROUGE, LOUISIANA. MCPHERSON AND OLIVER, 2 APRIL 1863. TOP CENTRE: ‘A SET OF SHACKLES USED TO HOLD ENSLAVED AFRICANS IN FORTS AND CASTLES ALONG THE COAST FROM TAMALE, GHANA’. DISPLAYED AT THE INTERNATIONAL SLAVERY MUSEUM IN LIVERPOOL, ENGLAND. AP PHOTO/RUSSELL CONTRERAS, NOVEMBER 2019. BOTTOM CENTRE: ‘SPECULUM ORIS’. HISTORY 120 BLOGSPOTTER.COM. ORIGINAL SOURCE UNKNOWN. TOP RIGHT: ‘CAPTAIN JOHN KIMBER ON THE DECK OF THE RECOVERY, SHOWN BESIDES THE GIRL HE FLOGGED TO DEATH, 1792’. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PRINTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS DIVISION, BRITISH CARTOON COLLECTION LC-USZ62-6204. BOTTOM RIGHT: ‘SLAVES BEING CAST OFF THE ZONG’. BBC BITESIZE. ORIGINAL SOURCE UNKNOWN


T he slavery business had far-reaching impacts across British society. It wasn’t just the plantation owners (the so-called ‘absentees’) who profited from slavery. Ship owners made huge profits without having to leave the country, as did middle class slave owners based in the UK who owned small numbers of enslaved Africans who they rented out for gang work in the colonies. What we learn from UCL’s Legacies of British Slave Ownership Project is that slave ownership was not limited to the port cities and that about 40% of British slave owners living in the colonies were women.

The slave economy went hand in hand with a growth in exports as factory owners found a market for their goods overseas. 50% of the textiles exported from Manchester, for example, found a market in the ‘West Indies’. In this way, the livelihoods of ordinary workers in ship-building, gun-making, textiles, finance, and the navy were intricately tied up in the triangular trade.

Textiles from Yorkshire and Lancashire were bought by ship captains along with guns for bargaining with merchants in West Africa. By 1800, 60% of all British exports went to Africa and the Americas. Even after abolition, British factories continued to supply machinery to the other European-owned plantations. The empire’s economy was essentially built on wealth accumulated from the triangular trade and the profits of slavery helped finance Britain’s Industrial Revolution.

The slave trade transformed the British economic landscape: the Bank of England, for example, was founded with fortunes amassed through the slave trade and sugar refineries cropped up across the country. The trade was responsible for the growth of the Royal Navy and by the 1780s, Liverpool became the largest slave-ship building site in Britain.

Notoriously, Edward Colston, who made a fortune from his involvement with the Royal African Company, donated £100,000 to the city of Bristol, some of which was used to found a boys’ school in his name. The Royal African Company was responsible for the transportation of approximately 100,000 enslaved Africans to the Americas between 1672 and 1689. The company in fact branded the initials ‘RAC’ into the flesh of the African men and women aboard its ships. June 2020 witnessed Black Lives Matter protesters topple a statue in Bristol’s city centre that falsely celebrated Colston as a ‘philanthropist’.  




LEFT: ‘SLAVE TRADE (ON THE WEST AFRICAN COAST)’. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. RIJKSMUSEUM, AMSTERDAM. RIGHT: ‘FLAGELLATION OF A FEMALE SAMBOE SLAVE’. WILLIAM BLAKE, 1793. THE BRITISH MUSEUM.


After the Abolition Act of 1807, Britain took on the role of international policeman, with British naval squadrons patrolling the coasts of the Caribbean and West Africa on the lookout for illegal slave traders. Britain played the role of diplomat, bargaining for other European nations such as Spain, Portugal, and the Netherlands to reduce or stop their slave trading activity.

It wasn’t until 1833, however, that the 800,000 Africans enslaved within the borders of the British Empire were granted their freedom and even then, these former captives were required to provide 45 hours of unpaid labour each week for their former enslavers for an additional four years under the system of forced ‘apprenticeship’.

Although slavery was effectively suppressed in the Atlantic, moreover, it continued in British territories in the Indian Ocean and the Far East almost unhindered. The Indian Ocean slave trade in fact reached its peak in the nineteenth century when European slave traders responded to the prohibition of slave trading on the West African coast by instead capturing Africans on the East African coast.

After abolition in Britain, formerly enslaved Africans received nothing, yet slave owners were generously compensated for their ‘loss of human property’. The £20 million sum (which is approximately £17 billion in today’s money) that the British government borrowed in order to compensate enslavers was so large in fact that British taxpayers were paying it off until 2015.

The sum constituted 40% of total government expenditure in 1834. There were 47,000 claimants in total. The largest claim was made by John Gladstone, father of former British prime minister William Gladstone, with other high profile claimants including the ancestors of George Orwell, Benedict Cumberbatch, and David Cameron.

Mainstream British history narratives celebrate abolition as the achievement of British politician William Wilberforce and other British abolitionists, overlooking the fact that it was enslaved and free Africans such as Olaudah Equiano, Igantius Sancho, Frederick Douglass, Ida B. Wells, and William and Ellen Craft who were the driving forces behind the movement.

Abolition was a response to the fact that slavery was no longer an economically stable venture for British investors because enslaved Africans were banding together and demanding their own basic human rights. Revolts broke out in Barbados in 1816 and Guyana in 1823. By the 1820s, more than 2,500 enslaved people were escaping from plantations in Jamaica each year.

In Jamaica in late 1831, around 60,000 enslaved Africans (out of 300,000 on the island) joined a 10-day long rebellion led by Samuel Sharpe, an enslaved but literate Black man. The protestors set fire to the plantations and destroyed the sugar mills demanding that they were paid for their labour. The British authorities responded by sending firing squads to the gallows, killing hundreds.

Hundreds more rebels were also captured and over 750 were convicted. 138 of them, including Samuel Sharpe, were sentenced to death and thereby executed by the British authorities. The rebellion sparked British fears about the future of the slave economy on the island and therefore helped to exacerbate the abolition process.

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LEFT: ‘REVOLT ABOARD A SLAVE SHIP’. 19TH CENTURY SLAVERY IMAGES: A VISUAL RECORD OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE AND SLAVE LIFE IN THE EARLY AFRICAN DIASPORA. RIGHT: ‘THE BURNING OF ROEHAMPTON ESTATE DURING THE BAPTIST WAR’. ADOLPHE DUPERLY, 1833.


Britain has quite successfully concealed its slave trading past, conveniently remembering its role in the abolition movement and forgetting the hand it played in the trade and brutal exploitation of Black Africans. In popular British history, slave traders and enslavers are remembered as ‘West India merchants’ and  ‘planters’ and those wealthy plantation owners who donated their ill-gotten money to British society are simply referred to as ‘philanthropists’, their links with slavery forgotten.

Despite Britain’s celebrated role in the abolition movement and the positive work that British abolitionists did in helping to suppress the Atlantic slave trade, British slave ships transported 3.4 million enslaved Africans to the Americas. In fact, Britain was one of the leading drivers of slave traffic across the Atlantic, operating as the chief slave trading nation for over 100 years (between 1640 and 1807). Portugal, which was responsible for the transportation of 5 million Africans to the Americas, is the only country whose slave trading figures exceed Britain’s. Collectively, British and Portuguese ships accounted for the transportation of 70% of all enslaved Africans across the Atlantic.
 


WANT TO KNOW MORE
ABOUT THE BRITISH SLAVE TRADE?




CHECK OUT THESE PROJECTS:






Slave Voyages Database

EMORY CENTER FOR DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP


Britain’s Forgotten Slave Owners

BBC TWO


Frederick Douglass in Britain and Ireland

HANNAH MURRAY


The Abolition Project

The Transatlantic Slave Trade

NATIONAL MUSEUMS LIVERPOOL


Slave Ship in 3D Video

EMORY CENTER FOR DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP


Scotland and the Slave Trade

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND


Documenting the American South

UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA


Truth 2007

LIGALI





THE BRITISH SLAVE TRADE
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES




BOOKS

PRINCE, MARY. THE HISTORY OF MARY PRINCE. 1831.

ZOELLNER, TOM. ISLAND ON FIRE: THE REVOLT THAT ENDED SLAVERY IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 2020.

DEVINE, T.M., EDITOR. RECOVERING SCOTLAND’S SLAVERY PAST: THE CARIBBEAN CONNECTION. EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2015.

TURNER, SASHA. CONTESTED BODIES: PREGNANCY, CHILDREARING, AND SLAVERY IN JAMAICA. 2017.

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK. NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS, AN AMERICAN SLAVE. 1845.

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK. MY BONDAGE AND MY FREEDOM. 1855.

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK. LIFE AND TIMES OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS. 1881.

OLUSOGA, DAVID. BLACK AND BRITISH: A FORGOTTEN HISTORY. 2017.

STUART, ANDREA. SUGAR IN THE BLOOD. 2012.

PATON, DIANA. NO BOND BUT THE LAW: PUNISHMENT, RACE, AND GENDER IN JAMICAN STATE FORMATION, 1780-1870. 2004.

JACOBS, HARRIET. INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL. WRITTEN BY HERSELF AND A TRUE LIFE OF SLAVERY. 1861.

CRAFT, WILLIAM AND ELLEN. RUNNING A THOUSAND MILES FOR FREEDOM. 1860.

WHYTE, IAIN. SCOTLAND AND THE ABOLITION OF BLACK SLAVERY, 1756-1838. 2006.

WELLS-BROWN, WILLIAM. THE NARRATIVE OF WILLIAM W. BROWN, A FUGITIVE SLAVE. 1847.

MAGIC TORCH COMICS. AYE, IT WIS AABODY: A STORY OF SCOTLAND’S ROLE IN THE SLAVE TRADE. 2019.

MARTIN, STEVE. BRITAIN AND THE SLAVE TRADE. 1999.

THOMAS, HUGH. THE SLAVE TRADE: THE HISTORY OFTHE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE, 1440-1870. 1978.

LOVEJOY, PAUL. TRANSFORMATIONS IN SLAVERY: A HISTORY OF SLAVERY IN AFRICA. 1983.

CARETTA, VINCENT, EDITOR. THE INTERESTING NARRATIVE AND OTHER WRITINGS OF OLAUDAH EQUIANO. 2003.

DAVIS, DAVID BRION. THE PROBLEM OF SLAVERY IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTION, 1770-1823. 1975.

RODNEY, WALTER. HOW EUROPE UNDERDEVELOPED AFRICA. 1973.

MULLEN, STEPHEN. IT WISNAE US: THE TRUTH ABOUT GLASGOW AND SLAVERY. 2005.


JOURNAL ARTICLES

OTELE, OLIVETTE. ‘BRISTOL, SLAVERY AND THE POLITICS OF REPRESENTATION: THE SLAVE TRADE GALLERY IN THE BRISTOL MUSEUM’ (2012), 155-172.

DUFFILL, MARK. ‘THE AFRICA TRADE FROM THE PORTS OF SCOTLAND.’ SLAVERY & ABOLITION: A JOURNAL OF SLAVE AND POST-SLAVE STUDIES 25.3 (2004), 102-122.

KEAN, SAM. ‘SCIENCE’S DEBT TO THE SLAVE TRADE’. SCIENCE, VOL. 364 (2019), 16-20.

PATON, DIANA. ‘REMEMBERING SLAVE TRADE ABOLITIONS: REFLECTIONS ON 2007 IN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE’. SLAVERY AND ABOLITION, VOL.30, NO.2 (2009).


CARTER, MARINA. ‘SLAVERY AND UNFREE LABOUR IN THE INDIAN OCEAN.’ HISTORY COMPASS, VOL.4, NO.5 (2006), 800-813.

DRAPER, N. ‘THE CITY OF LONDON AND SLAVERY: EVIDENCE FROM THE FIRST DOCK COMPANIES, 1795-1800’. THE ECONOMIC HISTORY REVIEW, VOL.61, NO.2 (2008), 432-466.


ONLINE ARTICLES

‘NEW BOOKS ON SLAVERY.’  LAPIDUS CENTER.


HOUSE OF COMMONS. ‘PARLIAMENT AND THE BRITISH SLAVE TRADE’. BLACK HISTORY MONTH. 9 JUNE 2020.

P. GABRIELLE FOREMAN, ET AL. ‘WRITING ABOUT SLAVERY? THIS MIGHT HELP’.

OLUSOGA, DAVID. ‘THE HISTORY OF BRITISH SLAVE OWNERSHIP HAS BEEN BURIED: NOW ITS SCALE CAN BE REVEALED’. SOCIAL SEMIOTICS. 12 JULY 2015.

MANJAPRA, KRIS. ‘WHEN WILL BRITAIN FACE UP TO ITS CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY?’ THE GUARDIAN. 29 MARCH 2018.

RADBURN, NICHOLAS AND DAVID ELTIS. ‘NEW DIGITAL TOOLS SHOW HOW IMPORTANT SLAVE TRADE WAS TO LIVERPOOL’S DEVELOPMENT’. THE CONVERSATION. 4 MARCH 2020.

‘BRITAIN AND THE SLAVE TRADE’. THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES, UK.

‘LONDON: CENTRE OF THE SLAVE TRADE’. HISTORIC ENGLAND.

BONA, EMILIA. ‘LIVERPOOL’S SHAMEFUL HISTORY AND WHY WE MUST NEVER FORGET IT’. LIVERPOOL ECHO. 14 JUNE 2020.

FARRER, MARTIN. ‘WHO WAS EDWARD COLSTON AND WHY WAS HIS BRISTOL STATUE TOPPLED?’ THE GUARDIAN. 8 JUNE 2O20.

SHAW, CLAIRE. ‘LIVERPOOL’S SLAVE TRADE MATTERS’. HISTORY TODAY. 3 MARCH 2020.

‘DAVID OLUSOGA: “THOUSANDS OF BRITONS OPPOSED ABOLITION - BECAUSE THEY OWNED SLAVES”’. BBC HISTORY EXTRA.

‘THE SLAVE TRADE’. ROYAL MUSEUMS GREENWICH.

‘WHO WAS EDWARD COLSTON, WHY WAS HIS STATUE TOPPLED?’ ALJAZEERA. 8 JUNE 2020.

‘SLAVE TRADE AND THE BRITISH ECONOMY’. BBC BITESIZE.

‘BRITISH RULE IN JAMAICA’. BRITANNICA.

JOLLY, JASPER. ‘BANK OF ENGLAND APOLOGISES FOR ROLE OF FORMER DIRECTORS IN SLAVE TRADE’. THE GUARDIAN. 18 JUNE 2020.

‘DYING ON THEIR OWN TERMS: SUICIDE ABOARD SLAVE SHIPS’. ROYAL MUSEUMS GREENWICH.

PRESCOD-WEINSTEIN, CHANDA. ‘YES, SLAVERY HAPPENED IN THE CARIBBEAN TOO’. MEDIUM. 16 NOVEMBER 2015.

ELLIOTT, MARY AND JAZMINE HUGHES. ‘FOUR HUNDRED YEARS AFTER ENSLAVED AFRICANS WERE FIRST BROUGHT TO VIRGINIA, MOST AMERICANS STILL DON’T KNOW THE FULL STORY OF SLAVERY’. NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE. 19 AUGUST 2019.

WILLIAMS, HOLLY. ‘HOW BRITAIN IS FACING UP TO ITS HIDDEN SLAVERY HISTORY.’ BBC CULTURE. 3 JULY 2020.

‘SLAVERY MUSEUM IN LIVERPOOL AIMS TO CONFRONT PAINFUL LEGACY’. TEXARKANA GAZETTE. 25 DECEMBER 2019.

‘CAMPAIGN FOR ABOLITION’. BRITISH LIBRARY.

‘THE MASSIVE OVERLOOKED ROLE OF FEMALE SLAVE OWNERS’. HISTORY.COM.

LITTLE, BECKY. ‘INTRODUCTION TO THE CARIBBEAN, EMPIRE AND SLAVERY’. BRITISH LIBRARY. 12 MARCH 2019.

ADI, HAKIM. ‘LONDON, SLAVERY AND ABOLITION’. BBC. 9 APRIL 2008.




PODCASTS/VIDEOS/DOCUMENTARIES

‘BRITAIN’S FORGOTTEN SLAVE OWNERS’. BBC TWO.

‘SLAVERY IN BRITAIN: WHAT DON’T WE KNOW?’ SKY NEWS. 18 JUNE 2020.

‘SHOULD BRITAIN PAY REPARATIONS TO JAMAICA?’ CHANNEL 4 NEWS. 30 SEPTEMBER 2015.

‘LIFE ABOARD A SLAVE SHIP.’ HISTORY. 7 FEBRUARY 2019.

‘SLAVERY AND EMPIRE’. IN OUR TIME. BBC RADIO 4 PODCAST.

‘INVESTIGATING THE LEGACY OF BRITISH SLAVE OWNERSHIP’. UCL PODCAST.

‘BRITAIN AND THE SLAVE TRADE’. BBC HISTORY EXTRA PODCAST.

HALL, CATHERINE. ‘BRITAIN AND THE LEGACIES OF SLAVERY’. UCL MINDS LUNCH HOUR LECTURES. 11 JUNE 2013.

PETTIGREW, WILLIAM. ‘HOW TO PLACE SLAVERY INTO BRITISH IDENTITY’. LECTURE AT GRESHAM COLLEGE. 11 JUNE 2014.



PROJECTS/EXHIBITIONS

FREDERICK DOUGLASS: INTERACTIVE MAP. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND.

FREDERICK DOUGLASS IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND. HANNAH MURRAY.

SLAVE VOYAGES DATABASE. EMORY CENTER FOR DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP.

THE ABOLITION PROJECT.

THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. NATIONAL MUSEUMS OF LIVERPOOL.

THE LEGACIES OF BRITISH SLAVE OWNERSHIP. UCL.

LONDON SUGAR AND SLAVERY GALLERY. MUSEUM OF LONDON DOCKLANDS.

RUNAWAY SLAVES. UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW.

SCOTLAND AND THE SLAVE TRADE. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND.

BRISTOL AND THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. BRISTOL MUSEUMS.

SLAVERY AND THE BRITISH TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES, UK.

THE TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE. DIGITAL PUBLIC LIBRARY OF AMERICA.

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN SOUTH. UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA.

BERNIER, CELESTE-MARIE. ‘SORROW IMAGES IN THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS.’ PUBLIC LECTURE GIVEN AT NATIONAL LIBRARY OF SCOTLAND, 21 JANUARY 2019.

ANTI-SLAVERY INTERNATIONAL TOUR
.



FICTION

LEVY, ANDREA. THE LONG SONG. 2010.

THE LONG SONG. BBC ONE. 2018.

NORTHUP, SOLOMON AND DAVID WILSON. TWELVE YEARS A SLAVE. 1859.

12 YEARS A SLAVE. STEVE MCQUEEN. FOX SPOTLIGHT PICTURES. 2013.

BUTLER, OCTAVIA. KINDRED. 1979.

THESES

GILLESPIE, CAIT. ‘THE END OF AMNESIA? SCOTLAND'S RESPONSE TO THE 2007 BICENTENARY OF THE ABOLITION OF THE SLAVE TRADE AND THE QUEST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE.’ MA THESIS, UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN, 2017.



Carissa Chew, author & owner
historiesofcolour@gmail.com



Annie Adam, illustrator
annieadam.graphics@gmail.com


© Carissa Chew 2021
Icons made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com



Carissa Chew, author & owner
historiesofcolour@gmail.com



Annie Adam, illustrator
annieadam.graphics@gmail.com


© Carissa Chew 2021
Icons made by Freepik from www.flaticon.com